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Sustainability — Orthogonal Paradigm

Tuesday, May 23rd, 2017

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Engineering Your Environment: Examples of Sustainable Housing in Rural Alabama

In a rural town in northeast Alabama, four families live in four very interesting homes.  Twice yearly these families kindly open their doors to visitors from across the nation, in hopes of inspiring personal responsibility and teaching people about sustainable living.  The 3-hour walking tour includes a dodeca-yurt, an underground home, a strawbale house, and a homemade house that combines dozens of passive strategies for self-sustaining, eco-friendly living.

DARYL’S HOUSE

Daryl

Meet Daryl, my tour guide, standing in front of his home.  Daryl is an engineer who designs and configures solar water heaters for the residential market across the southeast.  He integrates his 9-to-5 with his good stewardship to indulge in his real passion: environmental responsibility.  As passionate environmentalists, Daryl and his wife have taken personal responsibility to a new level, engineering every square inch of their home for optimum function, sustainability and well, true need.  In fact, a yellow card suspended from a string by their bathroom mirror reads: “Is it needed?  Is it kind?  Is it sustainable?” This, is their motto – their committment to being good stewards of the earth.

Daryl’s home can only be summed up in one word: ecclectic.  Solar water tanks and photovoltaic panels dot the roof above operable clerestory windows.  Deep, shade-providing overhangs hover over large, salvaged, double-insulated windows, in several sizes and colors.  A covered, screened porch is adjacent the living area that is jammed-packed with books and art.  And an uncovered, “sun” porch is lined with blossoming flowers and herbs.  A vegetable garden, solar cooking device, mushroom garden, and compost piles also provide them with sustainable ways to cook, grow food, and sustainably fertilize their gardens.

L to R: South facade, Sleeping loft above/living area below, Sun porch, Solar cooking device

Inside, the treads of the homemade stairs up to the sleeping loft, were trimmed by Daryl to minimize surface area, allowing the maximum amount of sunlight penetration to the kitchen and living areas below.  The two-story high space allows hot air to rise and solar-powered fans blow the heated air out of the high clerestory windows above.   In fact, all of their electricity is generated with photovoltaics and stored in a battery bank in the basement.

While not exactly what architects would typically call “aesthetically- pleasing design,” I thought it was perfect: the ultimate in fine-tuned engineering based on the true NEED for shelter.  Each piece of Daryl’s home was analyzed and planned for optimum daylighting, heating in the winter, cooling in the summer, and to be completely self-sustaining.

THE UNDERGROUND HOUSE

South facade

Next stop on this gorgeous day, was the underground house.  The group of 20 or so walked up a small hill and didn’t immediately realize we were walking on it’s roof, which also serves as their vegetable and herb garden.   Beyond the garden, was the top of the house, where a “drain-back solar hot water system” was mounted at the optimum angle for this specific latitude.   In this system, water ”drains back,” or out of the piping when the outdoor temperature is too low, so the pipes do not freeze.  Water is then heated by a wood stove in the winter.

Around the south side of the home (the only exposed facade), the owners planted grapes for shade throughout the summer.  In the fall and winter, when the plants die back, the sunlight is allowed to come streaming in, and helps heat the home.   Inside, the structure of the home consisted of three giant boxed-in I-beams resting on load-bearing walls.  All vertical surfaces are painted bright white to reflect natural light around the interior spaces.  In the kitchen and hallways, light wells (skylights) deliver a column of natural light from above.  At night and on cloudy days, the homeowners employ low-wattage lamps and LEDs to supplement the natural light.

Kitchen light well (L), Worm compost (C), Solar water heating device (R).

Because they have so many large window openings to maximize daylighting, and since glass is not a good insulator, the homeowners use thick, double-honeycomb window shades at night, to hold in heat from the wood-burning stove during the winter.  These type of shades can increase the the R-value of the window, depending on the cellular structure inside the shades.  In conjunction with double-paned windows, this can increase the energy efficiency of the the window by as much as 65%.

Outside, they taught us about Vermiculture, or Worm Composting.  All of these homeowners utilize worm composting, which basically uses Red Wigglers (a specific kind of species for this), in a bed of shredded newspaper, and some soil.  They keep it moist, using irrigation water from their rain-collection cistern.  They collect all of their food waste (coffee grounds, carrot tops, cirtus rinds – you name it) and add it to the compost.  You can even shred glossy magazines, bills, and junk mail and add to the mix.  The worms eat this over time, digest it, and their nutrient-rich waste makes the most fertile soil for growing.  They also filter the worm compost, to collect the liquid which is a highly-concentrated, nutrient-rich, powerful and organic fertilizer.  And, because they recycle all glass, metal and plastic, these families virtually have no trash or waste going to landfills, and do not even have a trash collection service to their homes.

THE DODECA-YURT

Originally a Mongolian nomadic home, this 12-sided structure was originally “designed” out of necessity to easily fold out the walls, add animal furs to the “walls” to repel high winter winds, add the conical roof, and viola!  Instant house.

Sun porch (L), South facade (C), Interior ceiling with skylight (R).

So while I don’t subscribe to the fact that a 12-sided structure is a wise thing to do THESE days, architecturally or constructability-wise, it does make for an amazing interior space.  The light inside was intense and beautiful.  The wood structure seemed seamless and added a warmth to the space.  However, their furniture was positioned around the perimeter of the room, making for an awkward residual space and for a seemingly large room, did not accommodate many people – standing room only.  The piercing light coming in from the skylight above was so strong  the homeowners had to later add a UV fabric over it and replace the faded fabrics on all their furniture and rugs.

The couple that lived in the yurt was the only family to have OUTdoor plumbing.  Yes, you read correctly.  The outhouse was located about 50 yards from the yurt, just inside the woods.  The small outhouse had “Rules for Use” written on the sidewall of the doorless “toilet” which included scooping a coffee mug-full of sand and covering your business when you are done.  It seemed to work much like a human litter box.  It was pretty odd using it, and got down-right embarrassing when another tour participant walked up to the litter box while I was still on it.   I am all for sustainable living, and the yurt was cool, but outdoor plumbing is a bit too primitive for me and day-to-day life.

THE STRAWBALE HOUSE

With it’s huge window openings, minimalist interior, all bright-white stucco walls, cast concrete roof tiles, and beautifully-crafted interior components, the strawbale house was my favorite of the tour.

The exterior walls of this home were constructed in a long process: Steel reinforcement bars are welded to a base plate.  Strawbales are continuously stacked, threaded onto the re-bar.  The bales are then covered with chicken wire and “woven” to secure the bales both vertically and horizontally.  At the top of the wall, threaded rods are welded to the re-bar tip, threaded through a continuous steel plate, and secured with a nut.  The nuts are tightened and the bales are fully-compressed.   A full, 3-layer stucco system is applied to both the interior and exterior, in total creating about a 16 inch-thick wall.

L to R: East facade/Front Porch, Interior, Sleeping porch, Handmade stairs.

This home was so beautiful, but my concerns grew about mold, fire, and insects – after all, this is Alabama, where much of the year is spent with super-high humidity.  So I posed the question to Daryl and the homeowner, and was quickly reassured all openings were completely and expertly sealed.  Of course, as architects, we have the basic understanding that moisture will find its way inside, regardless, so we should always provide a way for it to dry or escape.   I was told the risk of fire is a common myth about strawbale homes, as stucco acts as a fire-retardant much like gypsum board.  And they did not address possible insect infestation (I was wondering if there was a straw-eating insect that could plague the home, much like termites effect wood homes).

South facade

This home is completely off the power utility grid.  Lit only by daylight in the day and low-wattage lamps and LEDs by night, the solar panels beside their garden, deliver 2.5kW of photovoltaic electricity, stored in 12 batteries in the cellar.  Also in the cellar, is a homemade walk-in refrigerator with super-insulated walls and door, with a solar-powered compressor.  Upstairs, the stunning stucco walls reflect sunlight around the handmade stairs and wooden elements.  Their kitchen refrigerator is run by propane.  They do not have an active heating or cooling system, but instead rely on passive strategies: cross-ventilation in the summer and indirect thermal mass in the winter.

I would highly recommend the Solar Home Tour for any environmental enthusiast, designer, engineer, or homeowner.   This inspirational tour reminded me that sustainable design can create interesting spatial experiences as well as be functional and environmentally responsible.

For more information or to register for an upcoming Solar Home Tour, contact the Blount County Chamber of Commerce.

The Future of Drywall!

What if the drywall you put in your spaces was more than just a smooth surface to be painted or hang a picture on? Imagine if the walls served another purpose of regulating the buildings temperature. Well the future is almost here. ThermalCORE! Thermal Core is a National Gypsum product using BASF phase change technology.

How it works! This is my simplified understanding of how it works. So, BASF created a phase change technology that uses these little acrylic bubbles filled with paraffin wax. The wax when it warms up becomes a liquid and absorbs heat and when it cools down it solidifies and releases heat. Well, National Gypsum is taking this tech and putting it into drywall. By doing so, they add insulating properties to the drywall.

Some reports say that this product can reduce heating and cooling cost by 20%. They are still in the process of testing it and bringing it to the States. I am sure with all the Green Initiatives and growing knowledge about how much energy buildings are eating up that this product will be out sooner than later. If I could I would renovate my whole house in it.

Concerns? Since they have added acrylic and wax to the wall. How does that effect the fire rating? How sustainable is the product with those additional ingredients?

What do you think about this new drywall? Do you have any concerns or praise about the idea?

Source: ThermalCORE via Tech Review

Save Water Bricks

eco-friendly-brick-designThe concept behind Save Water Bricks is pretty cool. They want to use the waste leaves and waste plastics that are thrown away each year, to create bricks that absorb and channel water. The designers Jin-Young Yoon and Jeongwoong Kwon from Korea, realized in their country that some 20tons of leaves are burned each year releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. So they came up with a way to recycle those leaves and use plastic which is already recycled to produce a product that helps the environment in two ways. Either by the nature of the components or by design, they found that their product could absorb and direct water. This feature, I am sure will have them added to the LEED hotlist of products.

savewater3
savewater2A few of my concerns:

  • How does this brick compare to the common brick structurally?
  • How much water will it absorb before it starts to channel it?
  • How durable is it?
  • Would this be better compared to stucco than brick?

Either way, I think this is a great idea but as a practical replacement for brick not so much. I think it will fall in the middle where it will be used on projects that want the look of brick but do not need it for structure. I.E. Atlantic  Station in Atlanta, GA which has faux painted stucco bricks. What do you think about the Save Water Bricks? Leave your comments below.

Source: IIDA via Yanko Designs

What If Your Roof Could Change Colors?

roofWhat if your roof could change colors? Was the question that a team of engineers at MIT asked themselves and created Thermeleon. The idea behind this product is that most homes have black shingle roofs and in the summer it is absorbing heat and increasing your cooling bill but that is slightly offset in the winter where that same roof  lowers your heating bill. So, this team set forth to answer this question. They started off with an obvious solution of paint the roof white, but then that just reverses the cooling and heating problem. After more time and thought they came up with the idea of “What if you could do both – reflect the sun’s energy in the summer and absorb it in the winter?” Well needless to say you can do both.  With their patent pending, phase changing polymer gel, these engineers have have created a product that will on hot days become white and reflect all wavelengths of light and on cold days become black and absorb heat and radiate it into the house. As of today their are no updates on investors or if any of the major roofing companies are planning on licensing this technology. Hopefully we will see this on the market soon and soon after see our heating and cooling bills drop too.

Source: Thermeleon and Fast Company

The Second Tallest Building in the World

lotte-super-tower

The Lotte Super Tower will become the world’s second tallest building when it is completed in 2014 in Seoul, South Korea. Lotte Tower, which will be the the head quarters for the Lotte Group, will stand an amazing 1,821 feet tall, that is more than a third of a mile. The project designed by Kohn Pederson Fox Architects, a design firm with its headquarters in New York, is striving for this project to be LEED Silver Certified. Lotte Tower will practically be a self contained city with mass transit connections to the outside world. Inside the tower, there will be offices, retail, apartments and a hotel.

Lotte-Super-Tower-3

Sources: Kohn Pederson Fox Architects and Inhabitat

Traffic Lights Go Green!

trafficlite

There are have been great strides in making the the world more green and here goes another one. The solar powered traffic light designed by Cheng-Tsung Feng, Yao-Chieh Lin  and Bo-Jin Wang, who won the 2009 Lite-On Award (Silver Level). This new and innovative traffic light is an attempt to make the infrastructure of the city more sustainable. The light uses Discolor LED (Light Emitting Diode) technology. This technology integrated into the light, allows one light to take the place of the traditional three light system. The single light changes to green, amber and red. By using LEDs, which have become more common in traffic lights, the lights use less energy and by condensing three lights down to one the energy use is further reduced. The design in general is quite ingenious by incorporating the solar panels as a hood.

traffic2 traffic3

Source: Yanko Design

Architects Can Pleat Too!

taichung_01_night_1.jpg

Do you know how the Sydney Opera House is an iconic and international travel destination? Well here comes the next big urban icon. The Taichung Convention Center in Taichung City, Taiwan, <– link to Google Maps. The convention center was designed by Beijing based MAD Architects. MAD architects is a young firm made up of some pretty impressive individuals with awards from all over the place. For their first project in Taiwan, these MAD architects have designed something extraordinary. The pleated skin that covers the whole facility is a work of art in its own right, but it also serves a practical purpose too. The practical applications of the pleated skin are air flow throughout the buildings and power via the intergrated solar cells. The concepts of sustainability went beyond mondern thinking to draw on "Eastern philosophy of a harmonized synthesis between human and nature." This large project also took the form from the typical convietion center made up of blocks to a collective form that drapes from one area to the next. This pleated and draped structure will definitely redefine Tiachung from a city to a true International Cultrual Center.

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taichung_03_daylight_2.jpg
taichung_03_night_2.jpg